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(Created page with "'''Genetically modified food controversies''' are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of Plant breeding#Classi...")
 
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==Public perception==
 
==Public perception==
Consumer concerns about food quality first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the 1990s. [[Upton Sinclair]]'s novel ''[[The Jungle]]'' led to the 1906 [[Pure Food and Drug Act]], the first major US legislation on the subject.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Origin/ucm054819.htm|title = The 1906 Food and Drugs Act and Its Enforcement| last = Swann | first = John P | name-list-format = vanc | series = FDA History - Part I|publisher = U.S. Food and Drug Administration|access-date = 10 April 2013}}</ref> This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a focus on sanitation to include added ingredients such as [[preservatives]] and [[flavors]] and [[sweeteners]], residues such as pesticides, the rise of [[organic food]] as a category and finally to concerns over GM food. The public came to see the latter as "unnatural" which created a reverse [[halo effect]].<ref>{{cite web | first = Maria | last = Konnikova | name-list-format = vanc | work = New Yorker | date = August 8, 2013 | url = http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/elements/2013/08/the-psychology-of-distrusting-gmos.html | title = The Psychology of Distrusting G.M.O.s }}</ref>
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Food writer [[Michael Pollan]] does not oppose eating, but expressed concerns about *added words* biotechnology companies holding the [[intellectual property]] of the foods people depend on, and about the effects of the growing corporatization of large-scale agriculture.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://opensource.com/life/10/1/what-if-we-open-sourced-genetic-engineering|title=What if we open sourced genetic engineering?|publisher=}}</ref> To address these problems, Pollan has brought up the idea of [[open source|open sourcing]] GM foods. The idea has since been adopted to varying degrees by companies like [[Syngenta]],<ref>{{cite web | url = https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2013/04/08/can-syngenta-help-make-open-source-gmos-a-reality/ | title = Can Syngenta help make open-source GMOs a reality?|first=Sarah | last = Fecht | name-list-format = vanc |date=8 April 2013|publisher=}}</ref> and is being promoted by organizations such as the [[New America Foundation]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2013/07/open_source_gmos_to_fight_climate_change_and_take_down_monsanto.html|title=Let's Make Genetically Modified Food Open-Source|first=Frederick|last=Kaufman | name-list-format = vanc | date=9 July 2013|publisher=|via=Slate}}</ref> Some organizations, like The BioBricks Foundation, have already worked out open-source licenses that could prove useful in this endeavour.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Deibel E | title = Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences | journal = Life Sciences, Society and Policy | volume = 10 | pages = 2 | date = 9 January 2014 | pmid = 26573980 | pmc = 4513027 | doi = 10.1186/2195-7819-10-2 }}</ref>
   
 
Specific perceptions include genetic engineering as meddling with naturally evolved biological processes, scientific limitations on comprehending potential negative ramifications.<ref name=autogenerated2>{{cite web|url=http://www.gmcontaminationregister.org/ |title=GM Contamination Register Official Website |publisher=Gmcontaminationregister.org |access-date=2013-05-30}}</ref>{{better source|date=December 2015}} An opposing perception is that genetic engineering is itself an evolution of traditional [[selective breeding]].<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/01/genetically-engineered-food-health_n_2041372.html | title=Can Genetically Engineered Foods Harm You? | publisher=[[Huffington Post]] | date=1 November 2012 | access-date=7 September 2013 | last = Borel |first = Brooke | name-list-format = vanc }}</ref>
 
Specific perceptions include genetic engineering as meddling with naturally evolved biological processes, scientific limitations on comprehending potential negative ramifications.<ref name=autogenerated2>{{cite web|url=http://www.gmcontaminationregister.org/ |title=GM Contamination Register Official Website |publisher=Gmcontaminationregister.org |access-date=2013-05-30}}</ref>{{better source|date=December 2015}} An opposing perception is that genetic engineering is itself an evolution of traditional [[selective breeding]].<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/01/genetically-engineered-food-health_n_2041372.html | title=Can Genetically Engineered Foods Harm You? | publisher=[[Huffington Post]] | date=1 November 2012 | access-date=7 September 2013 | last = Borel |first = Brooke | name-list-format = vanc }}</ref>
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Environmental groups such as [[Friends of the Earth]],<ref>{{cite web|title=Genetic engineering|publisher=Friends of the Earth|url=http://www.foe.org/projects/food-and-technology/genetic-engineering}}</ref> include genetic engineering in general as an environmental and political concern. Other groups such as GMWatch and [[The Institute of Science in Society]] concentrate mostly or solely on opposing genetically modified crops.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.i-sis.org.uk/GE-agriculture.php|title=GE-Agriculture|publisher=The Institute of Science in Society}}</ref><ref name=GMWatch>{{cite web|url=http://www.gmwatch.org/about|title=About GMWatch|publisher=GMWatch}}</ref>
 
Environmental groups such as [[Friends of the Earth]],<ref>{{cite web|title=Genetic engineering|publisher=Friends of the Earth|url=http://www.foe.org/projects/food-and-technology/genetic-engineering}}</ref> include genetic engineering in general as an environmental and political concern. Other groups such as GMWatch and [[The Institute of Science in Society]] concentrate mostly or solely on opposing genetically modified crops.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.i-sis.org.uk/GE-agriculture.php|title=GE-Agriculture|publisher=The Institute of Science in Society}}</ref><ref name=GMWatch>{{cite web|url=http://www.gmwatch.org/about|title=About GMWatch|publisher=GMWatch}}</ref>
   
Food writer [[Michael Pollan]] does not oppose eating genetically modified foods, but expressed concerns about biotechnology companies holding the [[intellectual property]] of the foods people depend on, and about the effects of the growing corporatization of large-scale agriculture.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://opensource.com/life/10/1/what-if-we-open-sourced-genetic-engineering|title=What if we open sourced genetic engineering?|publisher=}}</ref> To address these problems, Pollan has brought up the idea of [[open source|open sourcing]] GM foods. The idea has since been adopted to varying degrees by companies like [[Syngenta]],<ref>{{cite web | url = https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2013/04/08/can-syngenta-help-make-open-source-gmos-a-reality/ | title = Can Syngenta help make open-source GMOs a reality?|first=Sarah | last = Fecht | name-list-format = vanc |date=8 April 2013|publisher=}}</ref> and is being promoted by organizations such as the [[New America Foundation]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2013/07/open_source_gmos_to_fight_climate_change_and_take_down_monsanto.html|title=Let's Make Genetically Modified Food Open-Source|first=Frederick|last=Kaufman | name-list-format = vanc | date=9 July 2013|publisher=|via=Slate}}</ref> Some organizations, like The BioBricks Foundation, have already worked out open-source licenses that could prove useful in this endeavour.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Deibel E | title = Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences | journal = Life Sciences, Society and Policy | volume = 10 | pages = 2 | date = 9 January 2014 | pmid = 26573980 | pmc = 4513027 | doi = 10.1186/2195-7819-10-2 }}</ref>
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Consumer concerns about food quality *added words* first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the 1990s. [[Upton Sinclair]]'s novel ''[[The Jungle]]'' led to the 1906 [[Pure Food and Drug Act]], the first major US legislation on the subject.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Origin/ucm054819.htm|title = The 1906 Food and Drugs Act and Its Enforcement| last = Swann | first = John P | name-list-format = vanc | series = FDA History - Part I|publisher = U.S. Food and Drug Administration|access-date = 10 April 2013}}</ref> This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a focus on sanitation to include added ingredients such as [[preservatives]] and [[flavors]] and [[sweeteners]], residues such as pesticides, the rise of [[organic food]] as a category and finally to concerns over GM food. The public came to see the latter.<ref>{{cite web | first = Maria | last = Konnikova | name-list-format = vanc | work = New Yorker | date = August 8, 2013 | url = http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/elements/2013/08/the-psychology-of-distrusting-gmos.html | title = The Psychology of Distrusting G.M.O.s }}</ref>

Revision as of 15:39, 20 June 2017

Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population. In addition, products derived from GMO organisms play a role in the production of ethanol fuels and pharmaceuticals.

Specific concerns include mixing of genetically modified and non-genetically modified products in the food supply,Template:R effects of GMOs on the environment,Template:R the rigor of the regulatory process,Template:R and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs.Template:R Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace, say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.

The safety assessment of genetically engineered food products by regulatory bodies starts with an evaluation of whether or not the food is substantially equivalent to non-genetically engineered counterparts that are already deemed fit for human consumption.Template:RTemplate:R No reports of ill effects have been documented in the human population from genetically modified food.Template:R There is a scientific consensusTemplate:R that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,Template:R but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.Template:R Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe.Template:R The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.Template:R Template:Toclimit

Public perception

Food writer Michael Pollan does not oppose eating, but expressed concerns about *added words* biotechnology companies holding the intellectual property of the foods people depend on, and about the effects of the growing corporatization of large-scale agriculture.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> To address these problems, Pollan has brought up the idea of open sourcing GM foods. The idea has since been adopted to varying degrees by companies like Syngenta,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and is being promoted by organizations such as the New America Foundation.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Some organizations, like The BioBricks Foundation, have already worked out open-source licenses that could prove useful in this endeavour.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Specific perceptions include genetic engineering as meddling with naturally evolved biological processes, scientific limitations on comprehending potential negative ramifications.<ref name=autogenerated2>Template:Cite web</ref>Template:Better source An opposing perception is that genetic engineering is itself an evolution of traditional selective breeding.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Surveys indicate public concerns that eating genetically modified food is harmful,<ref name=NatureEd>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name=NYTimesQuest>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=GristBegin>Template:Cite web</ref> that biotechnology is risky, that more information is needed and that consumers need control over whether to take such risks.<ref name=Hunt>Template:Cite journal</ref>Template:R<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> A diffuse sense that social and technological change is accelerating and that people cannot affect this change context becomes focused when such changes affect food.Template:R Leaders in driving public perception of the harms of such food in the media include Jeffrey M. Smith, Dr. Oz, Oprah, and Bill Maher;Template:R<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> organizations include Organic Consumers Association,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Greenpeace (especially with regard to Golden rice)<ref name=pmid24052276>Template:Cite journal</ref> and Union of Concerned Scientists.Template:R<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=Marden>Template:Cite web</ref>

Religious groups have raised concerns over whether genetically modified food will remain kosher or halal. In 2001 no such foods had been designated as unacceptable by Orthodox rabbis or Muslim leaders.<ref>Food Biotechnology in the United States: Science, Regulation, and Issues Congressional Research Service: The Library of Congress 2001</ref> However, some Jewish groups dispute this designation.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Environmental groups such as Friends of the Earth,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> include genetic engineering in general as an environmental and political concern. Other groups such as GMWatch and The Institute of Science in Society concentrate mostly or solely on opposing genetically modified crops.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=GMWatch>Template:Cite web</ref>

Consumer concerns about food quality *added words* first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the 1990s. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle led to the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, the first major US legislation on the subject.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a focus on sanitation to include added ingredients such as preservatives and flavors and sweeteners, residues such as pesticides, the rise of organic food as a category and finally to concerns over GM food. The public came to see the latter.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>